Fri. Mar 24th, 2023

which of the following helps explain why most species display an even sex r

Variation in mating success. If one character is present in both sexes, then one species is considered male while another is considered female. Adaptability and the Bateman gradient play a key role in the development of sex-specific traits. Intersexuals are examples of species that are intersex. Which of the following best helps explain why most species display an even sex r?

Variation in mating success

Regardless of the type of mating system used by a species, it is evident that this trait can play a significant role in the reproductive success of that species. Females may exhibit greater reproductive success when they have access to more males, while males may be selective and pick fewer females. Both males and females may be sexually dichromatic, allowing them to select mates based on their color.

The reproductive success of individuals is measured by the number of offspring produced by a pair. In fish, the number of fingerlings produced by a pair of parents is a good measure of reproductive success. In most species, the contribution of the sexes to offspring care and fertilization success are the main determinants of reproductive success. Biological explanations for the high degree of sexual dimorphism in most species are associated with the relative selection gradients among the sexes. Females providing greater parental care may cause large variation in male reproductive success, because females will not immediately be available for reproduction. Males, in turn, will be more likely to compete with females for available females.


Adaptability helps explain why most species display even sex r by predicting that the level of selection for sex is higher in more complex environments. However, not all adaptations lead to higher levels of sex. For example, populations adapting to low temperature did not exhibit increased sex r. Ongoing selection may also contribute to the rapid decline in sex r, which would favor an even sex r.

Adaptation must arise in relatively intact form at the appropriate time during an organism’s life, and it must be relative to other adaptations. The evolution of such adaptations may be sex-linked or frequency-dependent, or may be caused by varying selection pressures. Adaptations can also be correlated with a species’ ability to reproduce, enabling evolutionary scientists to better predict reproductive success.

Bateman gradient

The Bateman gradient, which accounts for the difference between males and females’ RS, is one of the most important aspects of sexual selection. The steeper the Bateman gradient, the greater the selection pressure on a particular trait, and the higher its variance is. If the Bateman gradient is steep, the sex will be more likely to exhibit that trait and succeed in mating.

The study of sexual selection began with Bateman’s classic paper. While there is a lot of controversy surrounding this paper, the basic principles of Bateman’s work can be interpreted in the context of selection theory. RS and MS can be measured using “mating differentials”: covariance between trait values and reproductive success. A Bateman gradient can be calculated using least squares regression of relative reproductive success versus number of matings.

Pathogenic bacterium

Recent genetic analysis has linked several virulent E. coli strains to different phylogenetic groups. While endosymbiotic associations between human pathogens and bacteria are rare, a number of bacterial strains are associated with an even sex r. The r of an even sex bacterium is used to distinguish it from one that is not.

Many pathogenic bacteria are obligate or opportunistic parasites that interact with their hosts. These pathogens are capable of colonizing organs colonized by billions of microorganisms. Bacteria and pathogens interact with each other, influencing their pathogenicity and the immune response of the host. Here are a few examples of obligate human pathogens and their interactions.

A common type of E. coli strain is Escherichia coli, which belongs to the Mollicutes class. They lack a cell wall and many biosynthetic pathways, making them highly dependent on their host. These bacteria cause many diseases, ranging from urinary tract infection to hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Despite the genus’ r-sex-r, however, there is no way to determine which species is responsible for an outbreak.

By Sandra

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